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腰果栽培与加工

主编: 梁李宏 张中润 [坦]PeterA.L.Masawe

出版社:中国农业出版社

ISBN:978-7-109-21175-9

出版时间:2015-12

关键词:腰果 栽培技术 果品加工 四大干果 坦桑尼亚

阅读

    桑尼亚是世界腰果主产国之一,其腰果主要分布在坦桑尼亚南部沿海地区,在东部沿海地区、内陆的中南部地区也有栽种。

    坦桑尼亚的腰果主产区分布在姆特瓦拉省、林迪省、鲁伍马省、姆贝亚省、伊林加省、莫罗戈罗省、达累斯萨拉姆省、滨海省和坦噶省,新的腰果种植区,如辛吉达省和多多马省现在也开始种植腰果。

    《腰果栽培与加工》是编者多年以来从事腰果研究并在已取得的技术成果基础上,以及参考相关技术文献基础上整理编撰而成,对农业技术员、腰果种植农户、腰果加工者等人士,开展高产、高效腰果园管理、副产品综合利用增值和相关技术推广,都具有实用性和参考价值。

  • 前言

    腰果(Anacardium occidentale L.)为漆树科(Anacardiaceae)腰果属(Anacardium)植物,热带常绿乔木,是世界著名的“四大干果”之一。腰果树在南纬20°至北纬20°地区都有分布,但主要产区在南纬15°至北纬15°以内的地...

  • Foreword

    The cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is a tropical evergreen tree of the genus Anacardium of the family Anacardiaceae and is one of the top four well known dried nuts in the world. Cashew ...

  • 第一章 腰果的经济用途

    腰果(Anacardium occidentale Linnaeus)又称槚如树,为漆树科(Anacardiaceae)腰果属(Anacardium Linnaeus)多年生常绿乔木。腰果果实包括果梨(假果)和坚果(种子)两部分,坚果内的腰果仁就是世界著名“四大干果”...

  • 第二章 腰果品种和类型

    腰果属已发现不少于20个种,而起源于南美洲的腰果(A. occidentale)是世界各主产区分布最广的物种,中国普遍栽培的腰果均属此种。腰果树一般有4种类型,分别为矮化型、普通型、巨型和野生型。中型腰果(半矮化型)已...

  • 第三章 腰果生物学习性

    在管理良好的条件下,腰果树2龄开始初花,3龄开始产果,6~8龄进入盛产期(图23至图29)。在不同的土壤类型和管理水平下,腰果一般可以保持稳定的产量达20年,有的甚至达50年。...

  • 一、营养生长

    在热带地区腰果树整年均可生长。在海南省北部地区,腰果冬季生长缓慢,寒潮低温期间基本停止生长,结果枝多在春季(3~4月)抽出。海南省南部地区多在秋冬季(10月至翌年2月)抽出结果枝,春季正是开花、结果、收获期,很...

  • 二、开花

    腰果花序边抽花枝、边现蕾、边开花、边结果。因此,一个花序同时可以存在花蕾、花朵、幼果、成熟果。每天每个花序平均开花5~6朵。不同品种(品系)的腰果开花时期和时间跨度不同,因此腰果收获一般需要4个月甚至更长的时...

  • 三、结果

    坐果率因树而异。海南省南部地区通常在20%左右。据中国热带农业科学院热带作物品种资源研究所资料,腰果树在盛花期的坐果率比初花期高2.5~6.0倍。成果率受温度影响。海南省北部地区3月前现蕾开花的花序,成果少或...

  • 第四章 腰果适宜栽培自然条件

    腰果树耐旱耐瘠,在热带地区适应性广,但抗寒力弱。世界腰果植区在南纬20°至北纬20°以内地区,主要分布在15°以内地区。在南纬20°至北纬20°以外地区种植时,必须重视宜植地选择和耐寒品种的培育。...

  • 一、温度

    研究表明,温度是限制腰果地理分布的主要因子,要求年平均温度24~28℃。月平均温度在23~29℃时,生长迅速,开花结果正常;20℃左右,生长缓慢;18℃左右,生长受抑制;17℃以下,受不同程度寒害;15℃以下,严重寒害或死亡。腰...

  • 二、光照

    据报道,原产地巴西最适宜日照时数为每年1500~2000小时,委内瑞拉以2000~2400小时为宜。海南省年平均日照时数,除中部山区为1746.6小时外,以西南部最高,达2661.5小时,其他地区都在2000小时以上,可以满足腰果树...

  • 三、降水量

    腰果树能在年降水量500~4000毫米,以及旱季长达5~7个月的地区生长结果。通常以年降水量1000~1600毫米为适宜。雨量过高,必须排水良好。花期下雨对开花结果极为不利。...

  • 四、风

    腰果树有一定抗风力,但8级以上台风能折断枝干,损叶伤根。强劲常风(4~5级)会损伤嫩叶和花序,影响产量。2005年9月25~26日第18号台风“达维”(12级以上,风速40~50米/秒)袭击海南省,严重折断幼龄和成龄腰果树树干和...

  • 五、土壤

    腰果树对土壤条件要求不严。除排水不良的低洼地、沼泽地、黏土地、碱性土及含盐分过高的土壤不利种植外,各类热带土壤均可栽种,其生长结果好坏取决于土层是否深厚、排水是否良好。腰果树对土壤pH适应也较广,中性、...

  • 第五章 腰果繁殖方法

    腰果种苗可采用种子、嫁接、压条、扦插等方法繁殖。

  • 一、种子繁殖

  • 二、营养繁殖

    这是果树生产上广泛应用的繁殖方法,就是利用良种母树的枝条培育出新植株,或嫁接到另一株适宜的实生苗上,使愈合共同长成一株新植株。嫁接用的枝或芽称接穗,承受接穗的植株称砧木。嫁接育成的树苗就是嫁接苗(图...

  • 第六章 腰果选育种

    选育种工作是提高腰果栽培水平的基础工作。从生产经济效益考虑,选育种不仅要根据主产区和主要性状来考虑,也要兼顾副产品及其次要性状。第一步,选出当地高产优良母树,培育其无性后代,观察其高产性状,并从中择...

  • 一、性状

    通常选优良母树要考虑下列指标:一是坚果总产量、壳仁比、坚果平均粒重、每磅果仁粒数、果壳中含壳液比例;二是要观察植株生势,树形,抗虫、抗风力,结果有无大小年现象,开花期,花序数量,两性花比例,坐果率,落果率,...

  • 二、主要栽培品种

    中国热带农业科学院热带作物品种资源研究所于1979年始开展腰果选育种工作,1990年选育出5个高产主要栽培品种CP63-36、GA63、FL30、HL2-13、HL2-21。...

  • 第七章 腰果种植技术

  • 一、选地

    温度是决定腰果地理分布的主要因子。因此,选择腰果种植地,首先要考虑当地冬春季低温寒潮情况,要求月平均温度最低不低于18℃,以20℃以上为宜,绝对低温不低于1.5℃。其次,海拔在400米以下为宜。海南省以海拔100米以...

  • 二、开荒

    海南省种植腰果地多为撂荒地,因此,用拖拉机全垦或带垦即可按规定植距挖穴。如植被为矮生草丛,也可不用机垦就直接定标挖穴;如植被系次生林或灌木地,则先要砍灌丛、清山、挖树头,然后才能挖穴。在云南省干湿热河...

  • 三、育苗

    培育无性系苗,首先要建立苗圃。选靠近水源、排水良好、疏松肥沃的地方建立苗圃。播种前1~2个月翻耕1次,起畦前再行“三犁三耙”,一定使土壤细碎后起畦。每公顷施腐熟堆肥15~30吨,过磷酸钙或磷矿粉450~900千克作基肥...

  • 四、定植

    定植无性系芽接桩或裸根苗时,以雨季初、中期定植为宜。定植之后生长期越长,根系越发达,对冬春干旱、低温的抗性也越强。冬春季节进行裸根定植,即使淋足定根水和盖草保水,成活率也很低。挖大穴定植,有利根系生长。...

  • 第八章 腰果施肥技术

  • 一、腰果树养分

    印度Mohapatra等研究表明,30年树龄的腰果树各部分(树叶、树干、树根、果梨、坚果)带走的大量元素养分,分别为氮2.85千克/株、磷0.76千克/株、钾1.26千克/株(表5)。表5 30龄腰果树各部分带走的的养分量肯尼亚Calton...

  • 二、腰果树施肥与产量相关性

    1985-1990年,中国热带农业科学院热带作物品种资源研究所和海南省腰果研究中心合作在海南乐东县腰果试验基地进行的研究表明,成龄实生树叶片含氮在1.00%~1.80%范围内,腰果产量随叶片氮含量的提高而增加;叶片...

  • 三、腰果树推荐氮、磷、钾施肥量

  • 四、施肥方法

    施肥方法因肥料种类、土壤类型、施肥季节和腰果树龄而不同(图59、图60)。氮肥通常在除草后撒施根圈,薄盖土;磷肥最好与有机肥混合施,也可开沟条施;钾肥施用方法与尿素、硫酸铵相同。施草木灰可与堆肥或绿肥混合施...

  • 第九章 腰果园管理技术

  • 一、除草和盖草

  • 二、间作

    1~3龄的幼龄腰果园,可以间种一些薯类和豆类作物,既可以在腰果非投产期获得一定经济收入,又可以防止腰果园杂草生长。间种作物如花生(Arachis hypogaea Linnaeus)、甘薯[Ipomoea batatas (Linnaeus) Lamarck]、...

  • 三、补植

    用种子直播或育苗定植的腰果园,在出现缺苗时都应及时补播、补植。通常在定植后1~2年内补植完毕,使腰果林相整齐。最好用营养袋装育苗补植,植株成活率高,恢复生长快。补植要在雨季进行。...

  • 四、修剪

    腰果树修剪包括整形和修枝,是腰果树管理的重要措施之一。在其他管理措施,特别是施肥措施配合下,适当修剪,可以克服产量大小年,达到高产、稳产的目的。幼龄树是整形的对象,目的是构成有利于结果的良好树形。成龄...

  • 五、疏伐

    腰果树是树冠外层结果植物,种植过密或树冠交叠荫蔽时,产量迅速下降,此时必须进行疏伐。新植腰果树植距多是6米×6米、6米×7米,在管理良好的情况下,6~7龄植株树冠的枝条交叉荫蔽,严重影响产量,应及时疏伐。通常采...

  • 六、高接换冠

    高接换冠是利用嫁接方法,将无产或低产成龄树换成高产无性系树冠(图61)。据中国热带农业科学院热带作物品种资源研究所试验,无产树或低产树换冠的第二年每株可结果0.3~0.5千克。高接换冠是改造低产腰果园的有效...

  • 第十章 腰果病虫害防治技术

  • 一、病害

  • 二、害虫

  • 第十一章 腰果收获及果仁加工技术

  • 一、收获

    腰果每年收获1次,不同地区因花期不同,收获期也不同。通常在开花坐果后2个月左右开始收获。海南省南部地区收获期在3~6月,5月为盛产期。由于开花期延续2~3个月,收获期也长达70~80天。当坚果果壳变硬,果梨迅速膨大...

  • 二、腰果仁加工

    干燥的坚果壳比较坚韧,不易破开,果壳液又容易溢出腐蚀皮肤,种仁脆而易碎,因而给加工带来不少困难。目前,世界腰果主产国(印度、巴西、越南、莫桑比克、坦桑尼亚等)仍是以手工操作的半机械化加工为主,确保较高的加...

  • 第十二章 腰果梨综合利用技术

    世界各腰果生产国都很重视腰果梨的综合利用,实验室用于试验或小批量生产的腰果梨制品有果汁、果酒、蒸馏酒、蜜饯、果酱等,但腰果梨工业化利用的程度仍然很低。中国热带农业科学院热带作物品种资源研究所腰果研究...

  • 一、腰果梨的化学成分

    根据腰果梨果皮的颜色,一般将腰果梨分为3个种类,即黄果种、红果种及杂果种。不同品种(系)、不同产地的腰果梨的化学成分有很大的差异。与大多数水果相比,腰果梨汁单宁和抗坏血酸含量非常高(表11)。因此,加工利用...

  • 二、腰果梨加工产品及加工方法

  • Chapter 1 Economic uses of cashew

    Cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linnaeus) is a perennial evergreen tree of the genus Anacardium Linnaeus of the flowering plant family Acacardiaceae. The fruit of cashew include apple (pseudo...

  • Chapter 2 Cashew varieties and types

    At least 20 species have been found in the genus Anacardium, and cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linnaeus) originating from South America is a species distributed most widely in the major cas...

  • Chapter 3 Biological habitats

    Under good management cashew trees start their initial flowering at the age of 2 years. Economic crop is realized in year three and enter into optimum production at the age of 6 to 8 years(F...

  • Section 1 Vegetative growth

    The cashew grows throughout the year in the tropical areas. It grows slowly in winter season, for example, in the north of Hainan Province, China, and it generally stops growing during the p...

  • Section 2 Flowering

    Floral branches, floral buds, flowers and fruits are produced continuously on the inflorescence or panicle. Therefore, floral buds, flower, young fruit and mature fruit can be found at the s...

  • Section 3 Fruit setting

    Fruit setting rate varies with cashew trees, usually about 20% when the cashew trees are grown in the south of Hainan Province. According to the data from Tropical Crops Genetic Resources In...

  • Chapter 4 Physical conditions adapted for cashew cultivation

    Cashew trees are tolerant to drought and poor soil and are widely adapted to the tropical area but not tolerant to cold. Cashew plantations are distributed at the North and South latitudes o...

  • Section 1 Temperature

    Research showed that temperature is a major factor restricting geological distribution of cashew and that cashew requires an annual mean temperature of 24-28℃. Cashew grows rapidly and flowe...

  • Section 2 Sunlight

    It is documented that the optimum sunshine duration for cashew to grow in Brazil, the origin of cashew, ranges between 1500 hours and 2000 hours, and between 2000 hours and 2400 hours in Ven...

  • Section 3 Precipitations

    Cashew trees can grow and set fruit in the areas with an annual rainfall ranging from 500mm to 4000mm and a dry season of 5-7 months. They usually grow well at an annual rainfall between 100...

  • Section 4 Wind

    Cashew trees are tolerant to wind to some extent. Wind above the Force 8 on the Beaufort Scale snaps trunk and branches and damages leaves and roots. Strong prevailing wind at the Forces 4-5...

  • Section 5 Soil

    Cashew trees can grow on various tropical soils except for the soil in the poorly drained low lands, marshlands and clay soils. The growth and yield of cashew trees depend on the soil layer ...

  • Chapter 5 Cashew propagation

    Cashew seedling is propagated by either seeds or vegetative propagation (budding, grafting, layering, cutting, etc.)...

  • Section 1 Propagation by seed

  • Section 2 Vegetative propagation

    Vegetative propagation is widely used in fruit tree production. Branches from elite mother trees are used to raise a new plant or graft onto other seedling plants to form new plants. The bra...

  • Chapter 6 Breeding and selection

    Breeding and selection is a fundamental work for improvement of cashew cultivation. When considering the economic aspect breeding and selection should depend on the location of the major cas...

  • Section 1 Characteristics

    Elite mother trees usually include following parameters:•Yield, shelling percentage, nut weight, number of kernel per pound, CNSL content.•Plant vigor, plant type, pest resistance, wind tole...

  • Section 2 Major cultivated varieties

    Cashew breeding and selection was initiated in 1979 by the TCGRI-CATAS and 5high yield cultivated varieties were selected in 1990, including CP63-36, GA63, FL30, HL2-13, HL2-21. Their perfor...

  • Chapter 7 Cashew planting techniques

  • Section 1 Site selection

    Temperature is a key factor affecting geological distribution of cashew. Low temperature and cold current in winter and spring should first be considered before the site for planting cashew ...

  • Section 2 Land clearing

    Most of cashew plantations are established in wastelands in Hainan Province. The land is reclaimed or cultivated in strips by tractors and planting holes are dug based on schedules. If the v...

  • Section 3 Raising cashew seedlings

    To raise clonal planting materials, the first thing to do is to establish a cashew nursery. Nurseries should be built on the land near water sources on the loose and fertile soil with good d...

  • Section 4 Transplanting

    Clonal budded stumps or bare-rooted budded plants are better to transplant in early and mid rainy season. The transplants when grow for a long time, have more well-developed roots and show h...

  • Chapter 8 Fertilizer dressing

  • Section 1 Nutrient content of cashew trees

    Indian researchers Mohapatra et al reported that the macro element nutrients removed from the leaves, stem, roots, apple and nut of the cashew tree at age 30 are N at 2.85kg/tree, P at 0.76k...

  • Section 2 Correlation between fertilizer dressing and yield

    A trial was conducted at Cashew Trial Base in Ledong County, Hainan Province, China jointly by the Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute, CATAS and Hainan Cashew Research Center during ...

  • Section 3 Recommended dosages of N, P, K fertilizers for cashew trees

  • Section 4 Fertilizer dressing methods

    Fertilizer dressing methods vary with types of fertilizer, soil types, dressing season and cashew tree ages (Fig. 59-60). N fertilizer is usually broadcast around the roots and covered with ...

  • Chapter 9 Management of cashew plantations

  • Section 1 Weeding and mulching

  • Section 2 Intercropping

    Some tuber and bean crops can be intercropped in young cashew plantations (1-3 years old), which can produce renumerative economic benefits and inhibit growth of weeds in the plantations. In...

  • Section 3 Replanting

    Seeds are resown or seedlings are replanted when there is a gap in cashew plantations. Resowing or replanting is usually done in 1-2 years to ensure uniform growth of the cashew trees. It is...

  • Section 4 Pruning

    Cashew pruning includes training and trimming, and is one of the important measures for cashew tree management. In combination with fertilizer dressing adequate pruning can overcome the alte...

  • Section 5 Thinning

    Cashew trees set fruits at the periphery of the canopy and yield low at a high planting density or under shade due to overlapping of tree canopies. In this case thinning is necessary. Cashew...

  • Section 6 Topworking

    Topworking is to change the zero or low yielding cashew tree canopies into highyielding canopies by using grafting (Fig. 61). According to the trials done by the Tropical Crops Genetic Resou...

  • Chapter 10 Control of diseases and insect-pests

  • Section 1 Diseases

  • Section 2 Insect pests

  • Chapter 11 Harvest and cashewnut processing

  • Section 1 Harvest

    Cashew is harvested once a year and harvesting varies with flowering stage in different localities. Usually harvest starts about 2 months after flowering and fruitsetting. The cashew is usua...

  • Section 2 Processing of cashewnuts

    Dry cashew nut has tough shell and is hard to break. Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is easy to spill to burn skin of the worker, and the kernel is crisp and fragile and hence hard to process...

  • Chapter 12 Uses of cashew apples

    Much attention has been called to multiple uses of cashew apples in cashew producing countries. Cashew apples are used to prepare juice, fruit spirit, steamed spirit, preserve, jam, etc in l...

  • Section 1 Chemical constituents of cashew apple

    Cashew apples are usually grouped into 3 types based on their color: yellow, red and differently colored. The chemical constituents of cashew apples vary substantially in varieties and locat...

  • Section 2 Cashew apple products and processing methods

  • 主要参考文献

    江式邦,邓穗生,洪丽娥,等.1987.海南腰果的施肥效应.热带作物研究, 7(1): 36-40.[Jiang S B, Deng S S, Hong L E, et al. 1987. Fertilizer effects on the cashew in Hainan. Tropical Crops Research, 7(...

  • 彩插

    Fig.1 Cashew kernelFig.2 Cashew kernel productsFig.3 Cashew apple-1Fig.4 Cashew apple-2Fig.5 Cashew apple wineFig.6 Cashew nut shell liquidFig.7 Friction powder and brake linings made from C...